The National Policy on Education (NPE)is a policy formulated by the Government of India to promote education. The policy covers elementary education to colleges in both rural and urban India. The National Education Policy was first framed in 1986 and modified in 1982. The Committee for preparation of the draft National Education Policy submitted its report to the Ministry on 31.05.2019. The Draft National Education Policy 2019 (DNEP 2019) was uploaded on MHRD’s website and MyGov Innovate portal eliciting views/suggestions/comments of stakeholders, including the public. The draft NEP is based on the foundational pillars access, affordability, equity, quality and accountability.
The new education policy 2020 has been approved by the cabinet on 29 -07-2020.
1. 10+2 board structure is dropped. New school structure will be 5+3+3+4.
2. Tenure for any degree will be four years.
3. Vocational courses available from 6th standard.
4. Student of classes 8th to 12th can use the subject of their choice.
5. UGC and AICTE will be merged.
6. All universities whether government, private, deemed, vocational etc. will have the same grading system and will be governed by the same rules.
7. New teachers training board will be set up for all kind of teachers across the country.
8. Same accreditation to any college.
9. New basic learning program will be created for preschool kids.
10.Multiple entry and exit from any course.
11.Reduction in syllabus.
12.Introduction of mother tongue.
13.Common university entrance exam.
14.Importance of Sanskrit.
15. Global universities to set up campus in India.
10+2 board structure is dropped-
With an emphasis on Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE), the 10+2 structure of school curriculum is to be replaced by a 5+3+3+4 curricular structure corresponding to ages 3-8, 8-11, 11-14, and 14-18 years respectively i.e. up to 5 preschool, 6 to 8 mid-school, 8 to 11 high school, and 12 onwards graduations.
The New Education Policy expands age group of 6-14 years of mandatory schooling to 3-18 years of schooling. The NEP introduces hitherto uncovered three years of pre-schooling, age group of 3-6 years under the school curriculum. The new system will have 12 years of schooling with three years of Anganwadi/ pre-schooling.
The focus will now be shifted to test core competencies (concepts) of students and not rote learning. It is aimed to promote the quest for knowledge in children and help in their holistic development. As per the NEP, all students will be allowed to take Board Exams on up to two occasions during any given school year, one main examination and one for improvement, if desired.
Tenure for any degree will be of 3-4 years-
Tenure of degree courses will be of three to four years, which will include major and minor. MPhil has been discontinued.
Vocational courses available from 6th standard-
Vocational courses will be made available for students of 6th standard and above. Vocational courses will comprise of vocational crafts, such as carpentry, electric work, metalwork, gardening, pottery making, etc., as decided by States and local communities.
By 2025, at least 50% of learners through the school and higher education system shall have exposure to vocational education
Ten days practical period for students of Grade 6-8, to intern with local vocational experts such as carpenters, gardeners, potters, artists, etc. Similar internship opportunities to learn vocational subjects for students of Grades 6-12. Vocational courses through online mode will also be made available.
Student of classes 8th to 12th can use the subject of their choice–
Students will be given increased flexibility and choice of subjects to study, particularly in secondary school – including subjects in physical education, the arts and crafts, and vocational skills. There will be no hard separation among ‘curricular’, ‘extracurricular’, or ‘co-curricular’, among ‘arts’, ‘humanities’, and ‘sciences’, or between ‘vocational’ or ‘academic’ streams.
Subjects such as physical education, the arts and crafts, and vocational skills, in addition to science, humanities, and mathematics, will be incorporated throughout the school curriculum.
UGC and AICTE will be merged–
UGC and AICTE will be merged. Higher Education Commission of India (HECI) will be set up as a single overarching umbrella body the for entire higher education, excluding medical and legal education. HECI to have four independent verticals – National Higher Education Regulatory Council (NHERC) for regulation, General Education Council (GEC ) for standard setting, Higher Education Grants Council (HEGC) for funding, and National Accreditation Council( NAC) for accreditation.
All universities whether government, private, deemed, vocational etc. will have the same grading system and will be governed by the same rules–
Universities and students usually struggled with different grading, but NEP makes it imperative for all universities – government, private, open, deemed, vocational and others – to have the same grading and other rules.
New teachers training board will be set up for all kind of teachers across the country–
Government will set up a new Teacher Training board for all kinds of teachers in the country, which no state can change.
A new and comprehensive National Curriculum Framework for Teacher Education, NCFTE 2021, will be formulated by the NCTE in consultation with NCERT. By 2030, the minimum degree qualification for teaching will be a 4-year integrated B.Ed. degree. Stringent action will be taken against substandard stand-alone Teacher Education Institutions (TEIs).
Same accreditation to any college-
Every college will have same level of accreditation, and based on its ratings, colleges will get autonomous rights and funds.
New basic learning program will be created for pre- school kids-
The government will create new basic learning program for parents to teach children up to three years in home and for preschool too. It also emphasizes on learning in mother tongue till class 5, and activity-based learning below class 2.
Multiple entry and exit from any course-
College will be mandated to give certificate after completing 1 year in a discipline or field including vocational and professional areas, a diploma after 2 years of study, or a Bachelor’s degree after a 3-year program.
Government will also establish an Academic Bank of Credit for digitally storing academic credits earned from different HEIs so that these can be transferred and counted towards final degree earned.
Reduction in syllabus-
The subjects will be reduced to core knowledge of the subject only. NEP also makes mandatory for schools/colleges/universities to focus more on student practical and application knowledge.
Introduction of mother tongue-
The new education policy emphasis on students’ mother tongue as the medium of instruction even as it sticks to the ‘three-language formula’ but also mandates that no language would be imposed on anyone. The drafted document states that children learn and grasp concepts more quickly in their home language.
“Wherever possible, the medium of instruction until at least Grade 5, but preferably till Grade 8 and beyond, will be the home language, mother tongue, local language or the regional language. Thereafter, the home or local language shall continue to be taught as a language wherever possible. This will be followed by both public and private schools,” the policy states.
Common university entrance exam-
The National Testing Agency (NTA) will conduct a common entrance examination for university admission, which will include an aptitude test and specialised common subject examination for all the three streams. The entrance examination will be conducted twice every year for university admissions.
Importance of Sanskrit-
The new education policy aims to include Sanskrit as one of the main languages in the three languages formula. The policy also proposes Sanskrit to be offered at all levels of school and higher education.
Emphasis on digital and online learning-
Importance will be given to online medium for learning, e-books and other features will be made available to the students.
Global universities to set up campuses in India-
Top 100 universities will be allowed to set up a campus in India. This will not only boost the economy but will also provide an opportunity to the students who cannot afford to study abroad.