Updated: May 20, 2020
When a police officer gives a police report under section 173 CrPC recommending prosecution, it is called a charge sheet. After questioning the accused and hearing the arguments, the magistrate frames charges on the accused for which he is tried. It is distinct from the FIRST INFORMATION REPORT (FIR) which is the core document that describes a crime that has been committed, usually refers to one or more FIRs and charges an individual or organization for (some or all of) the crimes specified in those FIRs. Once the charge -sheet has been submitted to a court of law, the court decides as to who among the accused has sufficient prima facie evidence against him to be put on the trial. After the court pronounces its order on framing of charges, prosecution proceeding against the accused in the judicial system.
Have a definition from a case K.VEERASWAMI V/S UNION OF INDIA(1991) 3 SCC 655
The investigating officer collects material from all sides and prepares a report, which he files in the court as a charge -sheet. The Charge-sheet is nothing but a final report of a police officer under section 173(2) of the Cr.P.C. The statutory requirement of the report under section 173(2) would be complied with of the various details prescribed therein are included in the report. This report is an intimation to the magistrate that upon investigation into a cognizable offence the Investigation Officer has been able to procure sufficient evidence for the court to inquire into the offence and the necessary information is being sent to the court. In fact, the report under section 173(2), purports to be an opinion of the investigating officer that as far as he is concerned he has been able to procure sufficient material for the trial of the accused of the court. The report is complete if it is accompanied by all the documents and statement of witnesses required by section 175(5). Nothing more need be stated in the report of the Investigating Officer. It is also not necessary that all details of the offence must be stated. The details of the offences are required to be proved to bring home the guilt to the accused at a later stage i.e. in the course of the trial of the case by adducing acceptable evidence.